Seam Editions

An English to Welsh Feminist Dictionary by Sarah Hudis

An English to Welsh Dictionary of Feminist Terms


Foreword

One cannot communicate hunaniaeth, identity, without a language in which to do so. This dictionary seeks to address the lack of a Welsh feminist vocabulary, proposing alternative uses of the Welsh language which allow for expression beyond a binary of male/female, and for the articulation of a uniquely Welsh feminist identity, so that everyone, and not just their fathers, may find themselves in the Welsh language. One might term this language ‘hunaniaith’: a language of self which allows for the articulation of all identities through the medium of the Welsh language.

Sarah Hudis



Anthem, n. • Anthem, e.b.

A song officially adopted by a nation, school, or other body, and performed at ceremonies and other official occasions, typically used as an expression of identity and pride; spec. = national anthem, n.


2017 BBC Wales Music:
Mae hen wlad fy nhadau yn annwyl i mi / Gwlad beirdd a chantorion, enwogion o fri…

The old land of my fathers is beloved to me / The land of poets and singers, famed (people) of prestige…

1993 Luce Irigaray, An Ethics of Sexual Difference, p.10:
Woman ought to be able to find herself, among other things, through the images of herself already deposited in history and the conditions of productions of the work of man, and not on the basis of his work, his genealogy.

The opening line of the Welsh national anthem can be understood as implying that ‘my fathers’ are one and the same as the celebrated ‘poets and singers’ and singers of Wales, placing Welsh men in the position of the producers and users of the Welsh language. ‘Land of my fathers’ evokes a male genealogy: ‘of my fathers,’ as ‘of poets and singers’ potentially implies not only that the land has produced these patriarchal linguists, but that the land (and its language) belongs to them, and will continue to do so, through a patrilineal inheritance.



Feminism, n. • Ffeministiaeth, e.b.


1) Etymology

‘Feminism’ (English) > ‘Feminisme’ (French) > ‘Femininus’ (Latin) > ‘Fēmina’ (Latin - woman)

Ffeministiaeth: ‘Feminist’ (English) + ‘iaeth’ (Welsh suffix, ‘ism’)

The Welsh ‘Ff’ replaces the English ‘F’ in order to replicate the English pronunciation. The word ‘Ffeministiaeth’ is not linked to a Welsh word for ‘Woman’.

See ‘Woman, n. •’


2) Translation

1999 Walter Benjamin, ‘The Task of the Translator’, in Illuminations, p.3:
[T]ranslation […] ultimately serves the purpose of expressing the central reciprocal relationship between languages.

The relationship between the words ‘Feminism’ and ‘Ffeministiaeth’ is not reciprocal. ‘Ffeministiaeth’ is not a translation of ‘Feminist,’ an act of cultural exchange, but rather a Welsh adoption of the English word. The practice of adopting English words to the context of Welsh liberation movements such a feminism can be understood as perpetuating colonial structures.

1986 Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o, Decolonising the Mind, p.3:
The effect of a cultural bomb is to annihilate a people’s belief in their names, in their languages, in their environment, in their heritage of struggle, in their unity, in their capacities, and ultimately in themselves. It makes them see their past as a wasteland of non-achievement and it makes them want to identify with that which is furthest from that wasteland. It makes them want to identify with that which is furthest removed from themselves; for instance, with other peoples’ languages rather than their own.

The derivation of the language of liberation from the language of the coloniser can be understood as positing the colonising language (in this case, English) as a superior language of progression. It can be argued that this contributes to an erasure of minority language identities within feminist discourse.

1986 Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o, Decolonising the Mind, p.3:
Amidst this wasteland which it has created, imperialism presents itself as the cure.

See ‘Historical Notes’



Identity, n. • Hunaniaeth, e.b.g.

Who or what a person or thing is; a distinct impression of a single person or thing presented to or perceived by others; a set of characteristics or a description that distinguishes a person or thing from others.


1) Gender identity • hunaniaeth rhywiol.

See ‘Rhyw (1)’

Welsh singular pronouns, much like English singular pronouns, reflect the ‘two categories’ of ‘male’ and ‘female’ set out in ‘Rhyw (1)’: ‘Hi’ (‘She’) and ‘Ef, Fe, E’ (‘Him’). There is no direct translation of the English ‘It’, a ‘third person singular neuter pronoun’ in the Welsh language. Rather, ‘Hi’ or ‘Ef’ is used, depending on the grammatical gender of the object referred to.

See ‘Rhyw (2)’

This two gender system of categorisation can be seen as excluding people who identity neither as a man nor as a woman, or not as exclusively a man or a woman, from both the English and the Welsh language. In order to negate this exclusion, the use of the English pronouns ‘They, Them’ not only when referring to a group, or to an individual whose gender is not known to the speaker/ writer, but as a pronoun chosen by an individual to represent themselves, has become increasingly widespread. This allows for the articulation of non-binary gender identities. (Hunaniaith) The American Dialect Society named ‘they’ as their 2015 word of the year:

2016 American Dialect Society, 2015 Word of the Year is Singular “They”:
They was recognized by the society for its emerging use as a pronoun to refer to a known person, often as a conscious choice by a person rejecting the traditional gender binary of he and she.

See ‘Mutation (2)’

The use of a single personal pronoun to address both a group of people and an individual is well established within the Welsh language. The English ‘You’ translates, in Welsh, as ‘Ti’ or ‘Chi/Chwi’. Whilst ‘Ti’ always refers to an individual, ‘Chi/Chwi,’ can be used either to address more than one person, or, when addressing an individual, as a ‘mark of respect of deference to the person addressed’. Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymraeg cites such uses of ‘Chwi’ as early as c. 1400-1500. Given the precedent, the Welsh ‘Nhw’ (They, Them), conventionally used to refer to a group, could be used in a similar way to its English counterparts, as a gender-neutral pronoun referring to an individual. (Hunaniaith).

See ‘Rhyw (3)’

Possessive determiners in the Welsh language are also gendered. Although in isolation the possessive ‘ei’ (his/her) appears gender-neutral, it causes a mutation in certain nouns it may precede, according to the gender of the person in question.

See ‘Mutation (3)’

Mutations do not affect vowels, and affect only the consonants ‘c’, ‘p’, ‘t’, ‘g’ , ‘b’, ‘d’, ‘ll’, ‘rh’, and ‘m’. There are three forms of mutation: ‘Soft’, ‘Aspirate’, and ‘Nasal’. ‘Ei’ (‘His’) causes a Soft Mutation, which creates the following phonological and written changes:

c > g
p > b
t > d
b > f
d > dd
ll > l
rh > r
m > f

Example: his tradition • ei draddodiad. ‘Traddodiad’ mutates.

Ei’ (her) causes Aspirate Mutation, which creates the following changes:

c > ch
p > ph
t > th

Example: her tradition • ei thraddodiad. ‘Traddodiad’ mutates.

To designate either soft or aspirate mutation as gender-neutral would be to posit either masculinity or femininity as universal. However, to abolish these mutations would be to disregard a pattern of mutation which is deeply ingrained in the Welsh language.

1993 Gareth King, Modern Welsh: A Comprehensive Grammar, p.3:
[mutation] pervade[s] the entire structure of the language, and cannot be divorced from any aspect of it.

Given the aforementioned tradition of using a single pronoun to refer to both a group and an individual, the same pattern could be introduced with regards to possessive pronouns. The plural possessive pronoun ‘Eu’ (their), which does not cause a mutation but has an identical pronunciation to ‘Ei’, could thus be used as a gender-neutral singular possessive pronoun. (Hunaniaith)


2) Welsh identity • hunaniaeth Cymraeg.

See ‘Rhyw (4)’

To be a Welsh person is to be a ‘Cymraes’, a female Welsh person, or a ‘Cymro,’ a male Welsh person. This again can be understood as enforcing a two-gender model, which does not allow for the articulation of a specifically Welsh non-binary gender identity.

This binarisation of identity is not an issue unique to Welsh culture. Latin-Americans have introduced the word ‘Latinx’ in order to negate the gendering of Latin-American identity that occurs in the use of the words ‘Latina’ (Latin-American woman, ‘Latin’ + ‘a’, a feminine suffix) or ‘Latino’ (Latin-American man, ‘Latin’ + ‘a’, a masculine suffix). ‘Latino’ is also often used as a universal descriptor for Latin-Americans, as is evident in the OED definition:

Latino, n.: A Latin-American inhabitant of the United States.

Raquel Reichard notes that ‘Latin@’ has previously been used as a universal term for Latin-American in order to include both masculine and feminine identities, the shape of the symbol ‘@’ resembling both ‘a’ and and ‘o’. ‘Latinx’, Reichaird argues, moves beyond the inclusion of feminine identity, the ‘x’ not only rendering the masculine ‘Latino’ gender-neutral, but also ‘encompass[ing] genders outside of that limiting man-woman binary.’

2015Raquel Reichard, Latina:
Latinx, […] includes the numerous people of Latin American descent whose gender identities fluctuate along different points of the spectrum, from agender or nonbinary to gender non-conforming, genderqueer and genderfluid, rather than Latina/Latino.

This model is not directly applicable to the Welsh ‘Cymro’/‘Cymraes’, as the letter ‘X’ does not exist in the Welsh alphabet. The word ‘Cymrx’ could thus, as ‘ffeministiaeth,’ be regarded as imposing a feature of the language of the coloniser upon the language of the colonised in order to perform cultural progression.

1986Nguigi wa Thiong’o, Decolonising the Mind:
to control a people’s culture is to control their tools of self-definition in relationship to others.

Using a word which usually indicates a group as a gender-neutral word for an individual, such as ‘Nhw’ and ‘Eu’, is also problematic in the case of Welsh identity. The collective term for the Welsh people is ‘Cymry’ (as opposed to the geographical name for the country of Wales, ‘Cymru’). John Davies writes that this word descends from the Brythonic ‘combriogi’, meaning ‘fellow-countrymen’. This term thus posits the masculine as universal, implicitly reinforcing a patrilineal or even ‘fratrilineal’ image of Welsh identity.

The Welsh suffix ‘ydd’ is both a pluralising suffix, as in ‘ieithydd’ (languages), and designates an individual who does the verb it follows, as in cyfieithydd’, ‘translator’ (‘Cyfieuthi’, ‘translate’ + ‘ydd’), and ‘ysgrifennydd’, ‘writer’ (‘ysgrifennu’, ‘write’ + ‘ydd’). ‘Ydd’ can also designate one who follows an ideology, such as ‘Benywdd’, ‘Feminist’. ‘Ydd’ is thus a gender-neutral alternative to the suffixes ‘es’ (which marks femaleness) and ‘wr’ (which mark maleness, but is often used as universal or if the gender of the person completing the action is not known.)

Example:Canwr’ (singer, male singer), ‘Cantores’ (female singer)

Gwlad beirdd a chantorion…

Cymrydd’ could thus designate an individual who does Welsh.

See ‘Intersectionality, adj. •’



Intersectionality, adj. •

[I]ntersectionality is a framework that must be applied to all social justice work, a frame that recognizes the multiple aspects of identity that enrich our lives and experiences and that compound and complicate oppressions and marginalizations.


2014Kimberlé Crenshaw, New Statesman:
I wanted to come up with a common everyday metaphor that people could use to say: “it’s well and good for me to understand the kind of discriminations that occur along this avenue, along this axis - but what happens when it flows into another axis, another avenue?”

Crenshaw asserts that although she coined the term in the 1980s, the ideas it articulates are not new; rather the metaphor of intersectionality makes visible convergences that are often unacknowledged within liberation movements.

2014Kimberlé Crenshaw, New Statesman:
Intersectionality draws attention to invisibilities that exist in feminism, in anti-racism, in class politics.

At present, words equivalent to ‘Intersectional’ and ‘Intersectionality’ in the Welsh language do not exist. The Welsh translation of ‘Intersectional’, the adjective describing identities existing at the intersection of axes, could be ‘Croestoriadol’- ‘an intersection’ + ‘ol’ (‘al’) – or ‘Croestorriol’ – ‘to intersect’ + ‘ol’. The Welsh term for ‘Intersectionality’, the overarching metaphor, would thus be ‘Croestoriadolaidd’ or ‘Croestorriolaidd’ – ‘Crosetoriadol’ or ‘Croestorriol’ + ‘iaidd’ (a suffix which creates an adjective when following a noun or verb.)

For examples of the intersection of identities and oppressions see:

the intersection of the identities Welsh, female, and working class and the oppressions of colonialism, misogyny and classism.

the intersection of the identities Welsh and gender non-binary, and the oppressions of colonialism, misogyny and heteronormativity.

See ‘Treiglad’

O bydded i’r heniaith barhau.
Oh may the old language endure.



Mutation, n.Treiglad, e.g.

Mutation (1): Change in government; revolution, civil upheaval; revolt, insurrection.

Mutation (2): The action or process of changing; alteration or change in form, qualities, etc.; an instance of this.

Mutation (3): In the Celtic languages: morphophonemic alteration of an initial consonant. More fully initial (consonant) mutation.

Treiglad: a turning, revolution, rolling, movement, wandering, travelling, course, progress, circulation, lapse or passage (of time), succession, thread, continuity, digestion, turn of events, vicissitude, translation.



Sex, n. • Rhyw, n.

Rhyw (1): Sex, gender; One of two categories (male and female) that living things are sorted into on the basis of their reproductive functions, the condition of being male, female, or without sex, men or women when considered as groups

Rhyw (2): gender (in grammar)

Rhyw (3): natural, usual, proper, or fitting (thing)

Rhyw (4): kind, type, sort, class, nature, species, breed, race, nation, family, lineage.



Woman, n. •


1) Dynes, e.b.

dyn (man) + es (termination denoting the feminine gender)

Dynes’ is a “feminisation” of ‘Dyn’ (Man). ‘Dyn,’ as ‘Man’ in English, is also used in a universal sense to mean ‘Humankind.’

1993Luce Irigaray, An Ethics Of Sexual Difference, p.121:
[T]he self-proclaimed universal is the equivalent of an idiolect of men, a masculine imaginary, a sexed world. With no neuter. […] It has always been men who spoke and, above all, wrote: in science, philosophy, religion, politics.

Mae hen wlad fy nhadau yn annwyl i mi / Gwlad beirdd a chantorion…

Dynes’ reduces femininity to a suffix, marking it as other, external to the universal.


2) Gwraig, e.b.

Synonymous with ‘wife’ and, historically, ‘a violated maiden, as distinct from a virgin.’


3) Mun, e.b.

Synonymous with ‘maiden’ and ‘sweetheart’.


4) Merch, e.b.

Synonymous with ‘girl’; ‘daughter of’; ‘female partner of’.


5) Benyw, e.b.

A female, girl, woman.


Dynes’ designates ‘Woman’ as an altered version of the prototype human ‘Man’. ‘Gwraig’, ‘Mun’ and ‘Merch’ indicate a woman’s sexual experience, and her relationship to a man, by designating her as ‘of’, belonging to, a man (as a daughter or as a sexual/romantic partner). ‘Benyw’ comparatively allows ‘woman’ individual autonomy, and is thus perhaps the most appropriate word from which to draw a Welsh term for ‘Feminism’ as a movement.

‘Feminism’ shares the Latin root ‘Fēmina’ with ‘Feminine’. A feminism which aims to deconstruct gender binaries is perhaps equally as concerned with the concept of ‘Femininity’ as it is with the concept of ‘Woman’: with the lower ranking of femininity in an enforced hierarchy of behaviour, and the way in which patriarchy requires bodies read as female to perform femininity, whilst others are barred from it. ‘Benyw’ encompasses this duality. ‘Femininity’, in Welsh, translates as ‘Benywaeth’ or ‘Benywiaeth’: ‘Benyw’ + ‘aeth’ or ‘iaeth’ (‘ism’). ‘Benyw’ is also the root of ‘Benywydd’, which (alongside ‘Ffeminist’) denotes the individual ‘Feminist’: Benyw + ydd (ist). ‘Benywddiaeth’ could thus be an alternative term for ‘Feminism’ which is rooted in the Welsh language.

See Feminism (2)



Historical notes


1) The Rebecca Riots:

In 1847, an inquiry into the state of education in Wales was commissioned as a response to a period of political unrest in Wales. This period was characterised by movements such as the Rebecca Riots. Rhian E. Jones writes that the movement, which she terms ‘Rebeccaism’, though largely known for its ‘attacks on toll gates’ also encompassed ‘protest against high rents, tithes, evictions, workhouses and the New Poor Law,’ with the protest taking ‘forms ranging from property damage to threatening letters and mass demonstrations.’

See ‘Mutation (1)’

Rebeccaism is notable for the use of costume by protestors. Jones notes that Rebeccaism has been consistently portrayed by historians and within Welsh mythology as a movement in which men assumed female dress for the practical purpose of disguise. Jones, however, asserts the importance of a previously largely unacknowledged component of the movement: ‘Rebeccaite dress contained a deliberate mixture of masculine and feminine signifiers’. The (predominantly male) protestors wore not only clothing associated with femaleness, but donned also false beards, markers of maleness. Jones argues that the ‘performance of stylised elderly and matriarchal virtues also heightened the contrast with the actual qualities of the ‘actor’’, the male protestor. Rebeccaism also transgressed the male/female binary in its adoption of a matriarchal figure as its namesake.

And they blessed Rebekah, and said unto her, Thou art our sister, be thou the mother of thousands of millions, and let thy seed possess the gate of those which hate them.

The protestors acted as ‘Rebecca and her daughters’, embodying a matrilineal heritage of Welsh working class dissent which utilised the transgression of a male/female gender binary in order to challenge economic disparity.

Mae hen wlad fy nhadau yn annwyl i mi…


2) The Treachery of the Blue Books:

The inquiry into the state of education in Wales concluded that an English language education would provide a solution to Welsh political unrest, as well as to widespread poverty. Gwyneth Tyson Roberts writes that in order to arrive at this conclusion, the commissioners had to establish a linguistic hierarchy which appeared to be incontrovertible: ‘the political dangers of inadequate education and widespread Welsh ignorance of English, the imperial language, had to be presented as objective and indisputable facts’.

Jane Williams, writing under the bardic name ‘Ysgafell’, published in 1848 a series of Remarks on Reports of the Commissioners of Inquiry into the State of Education in Wales. Williams writes: ‘the whole aggregate of imputed enormities is traced […] to one origin, their [the Welsh working class] ignorance of the English language’. However, the commissioners not only allocate blame for Welsh immorality and poverty to Welsh ignorance of the English language, but imply that the origin of these ‘enormities’ is the Welsh language itself. The commissioner Jellynger C. Symons writes:

The Welsh language is a vast drawback to Wales, and a manifold barrier to the moral progress and commercial prosperity of its people. It is not easy to over-estimate its evil effects. […] It dissevers the people from intercourse which would help advance their civilization, and bars the access of improving knowledge to their minds. As proof of this, there is no Welsh literature worth of the name.

Gwlad beirdd a chantorion…

The commissioners portray the Welsh language as an active agent, an aggressor, barring the Welsh working class from economic or cultural progression, whilst the speakers of Welsh are portrayed as passive, acted upon by their language. The image of the Welsh language as an obstruction is repeated throughout the Reports. Welsh is described as ‘a peculiar language isolating the mass from the upper portion of society’, the Welsh speaker as disconnected: ‘his language keeps him under the hatches, being one in which he can neither acquire nor communicate the necessary information’. These statements do not simply suggest that a lack of English language education inhibits communication, but also that regardless of their potential acquisition of English as a second language, Welsh speakers are restricted by the very fact of their speaking Welsh. It is this demonisation of the Welsh language that earned the Reports the name, in Wales, of ‘Brad Y Llyfr Gleision’ or ‘Treachery of the Blue Books.’

Tyson Roberts notes that the commissioners deemed ‘immoral’ ‘aspects of physicality which contravened middle-class Victorian rules for acceptable behaviour’, many of which ‘are more closely related to the poverty of a working-class population than they are with any specifically Welsh characteristics’. The report in particular scrutinises the sexual behaviour of Welsh women. The commissioners write that sexual intercourse outside of marriage is common in Wales, noting specifically the Welsh practice of ‘caru yn/ar y gwely’ (loving in/on the bed), in which unmarried couples would spend time alone in the bedroom of the female partner, a practice which existed in part because working class couples would often have to wait a considerable amount of time before they could afford to marry. Tyson Roberts notes that despite the fact that the relations reported upon are solely heterosexual, the ‘blame for infringements of the strict moral code that forbade sex before marriage is assumed in the Report (as in most Victorian public pronouncements) to rest exclusively on the shoulders of women’.

The commissioners locate responsibility for the moral health of Wales with Welsh women, writing that ‘each generation will derive its moral tone in a great degree from the influences imparted by the mothers who reared them’.

Mae hen wlad fy nhadau…

The commissioners often neglect to report on the state of education for Welsh girls. Tyson Roberts writes that their report implies that in some Welsh towns ‘there was no education provision […] for the daughter of poor parents’, and that this lack of provision was considered by the commissioners to be unimportant.

See ‘Identity, n. • Hunaniaeth, e.b.g.



Works Cited


  • ‘2015 Word of the Year Is Singular “They”’. American Dialect Society, 2016.
  • Adewunmi, Bim. ‘Kimberlé Crenshaw on intersectionality: “I wanted to come up with an everyday metaphor that anyone could use”’. New Statesman, 2014.
  • BBC Wales Music. National Anthem - Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau. 2008.
  • Benjamin, Walter. ‘The Task of the Translator’, in Illuminations, translated by Harry Zorn, edited by Hannah Arendt, Pimlico, 1999.
  • Davies, John. A History of Wales. Penguin, 2007.
  • Irigaray, Luce. An Ethics Of Sexual Difference. The Althone Press, 1993.
  • Jones, Rhian E. Petticoat Heroes: Rethinking The Rebecca Riots, 1st edition. University of Wales Press, 2015.
  • Reichard, Raquel. ‘Why We Say Latinx: Trans & Gender Non-Conforming People Explain’. Latina, 2015.
  • Reports of the Commissioners of Inquiry into the State of Education in Wales, appointed by the Committee of Council on Education, in pursuance of proceedings in the House of Commons, on the motion of Mr. Williams, of March 10, 1846, for an address to the Queen, praying Her Majesty to direct an inquiry to be made into the state of education in the principality of Wales, and especially into the means afforded to the labouring classes of acquiring a knowledge of the English language. In three parts. Part I. Carmarthen, Glamorgan, and Pembroke. William Clowes and Sons, 1847.
  • Tyson Roberts, Gwyneth. The Language of the Blue Books: The Perfect Instrument of Empire. University of Wales Press, 1998.
  • Utt, Jamie and Jarune Uwujaren. ‘Why Our Feminism Must Be Intersectional (And 3 Ways to Practice It)’. Everyday Feminism, 2015.
  • wa Thiong’o, Ngũgĩ. Decolonising the Mind: The Politics of Language in African Literature. James Currey, 1986.
  • Williams, Jane (Ysgafell). ‘Artegall or Remarks on the Report of the Commissioners of Inquiry into the State of Education in Wales (1848)’, in The Very Salt of Life: Welsh Women’s Political Writings from Chartism to Suffrage, edited by Jane Aaron and Ursula Masson. Honno, 2007.
Hunaniaith: self (hunan) + language (iaith). Term coined by the author.
Welsh nouns are gendered either as masculine – ‘enw gwrywaidd’, abbreviated to ‘e.g.’, feminine – ‘enw benywaidd’, abbreviated to ‘e.b.’, or both masculine and feminine, ‘e.b.g.
Oxford English Dictionary: anthem, n.
University Of Wales Trinity St David Welsh/English English/Welsh On-Line Dictionary: ffeministiaeth, n.f.

Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, from which all other Welsh definitions are sourced, does not offer a Welsh equivalent for ‘Feminism’.
Oxford English Dictionary: feminism, n.
F’, in Welsh, is pronounced similarly to the English ‘V’.
Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru: hunaniaeth, hunanaeth, e.b.g.
Oxford English Dictionary: identity, n.
Oxford English Dictionary: it, pron., adj., and n.1.
Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru: chwi
Welsh has double letters: ‘ll’ and ‘rh’ are single consonants.
Gareth King. Modern Welsh: A Comprehensive Grammar. Psychology Press, 2003, p.14.
Gareth King. Modern Welsh: A Comprehensive Grammar. Psychology Press, 2003, p.14.
Gareth King. Modern Welsh: A Comprehensive Grammar. Psychology Press, 2003, p.14.
John Davies. A History of Wales. Penguin, 2007, p.69.
Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru: cyfieithydd, e.g.
Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru: ysgrifennydd, e.g.
Jamie Utt and Jarune Uwujaren. ‘Why Our Feminism Must Be Intersectional (And 3 Ways to Practice It)’. Everyday Feminism, 2015.
The closing line of Hen Wlad fy Nhadau.
Oxford English Dictionary: mutation, n.
Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru: treiglad, e.g.
Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru: rhyw, e.b.g.
Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru: dynes, e.b.
Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru: gwraig, e.b.
Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru: mun, e.b.
Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru: merch, e.b.
Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru: benyw, e.b.
Gwyneth Tyson Roberts. The Language of the Blue Books: The Perfect Instrument of Empire. University of Wales Press, 1998, p.19.
Rhian E. Jones. Petticoat Heroes: Rethinking the Rebecca Riots. University of Wales Press, 2015.
Rhian E. Jones. Petticoat Heroes: Rethinking the Rebecca Riots. University of Wales Press, 2015, p.5.
Rhian E. Jones. Petticoat Heroes: Rethinking the Rebecca Riots. University of Wales Press, 2015, p.5.
Rhian E. Jones. Petticoat Heroes: Rethinking the Rebecca Riots. University of Wales Press, 2015, p.49.
Genesis 24:60.
‘The effect of a cultural bomb is to annihilate a people’s belief […] in their heritage of struggle’ – Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o, p.3.
Gwyneth Tyson Roberts. The Language of the Blue Books: The Perfect Instrument of Empire. University of Wales Press, 1998, p.2.
Jane Williams (Ysgafell). ‘Artegall or Remarks on the Report of the Commissioners of Inquiry into the State of Education in Wales (1848)’. In The Very Salt of Life: Welsh Women’s Political Writings from Chartism to Suffrage, edited by Jane Aaron and Ursula Masson. Honno, 2007, p.45.
Reports of the Commissioners of Inquiry into the State of Education in Wales. William Clowes and Sons, 1847, p.66.

‘It makes them see their past as a wasteland of non-achievement’ – Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o. Decolonising the Mind: The Politics of Language in African Literature. James Currey, 1986, p.3.
Reports of the Commissioners of Inquiry into the State of Education in Wales. William Clowes and Sons, 1847, p.2.
Reports of the Commissioners of Inquiry into the State of Education in Wales. William Clowes and Sons, 1847, p.3.
Gwyneth Tyson Roberts. The Language of the Blue Books: The Perfect Instrument of Empire. University of Wales Press, 1998, p.185.
Gwyneth Tyson Roberts. The Language of the Blue Books: The Perfect Instrument of Empire. University of Wales Press, 1998, p.70.
Gwyneth Tyson Roberts. The Language of the Blue Books: The Perfect Instrument of Empire. University of Wales Press, 1998, p.148.
Reports of the Commissioners of Inquiry into the State of Education in Wales. William Clowes and Sons, 1847, p.57.
Gwyneth Tyson Roberts. The Language of the Blue Books: The Perfect Instrument of Empire. University of Wales Press, 1998, p.157.